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ISBN: 0792372190Издательство: Kluwer Academic Publishers
With the increasing number of images available electronically, automatic retrieval systems are becoming essential. This book introduces an absolute prerequisite for any such system: a metric, called the Earth Mover's Distance (EMD), for comparing images in terms of their appearance. This metric describes the amount of work that is necessary to transform one image into another, in a precisely defined mathematical sense, and in a flexible and perceptually meaningful manner. An efficient linear programming algorithm enables the computation of this metric fast enough to be used for the interactive retrieval of images from large repositories. The perceptual properties of the EMD, and the speed of its computation, lead to database navigation, a new paradigm for interacting with a repository of images. When navigating, the user is shown a very large number of images in response to a query. The EMD between pairs of images, together with a multidimensional scaling method, allows these images...
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