Lambert M. SurhoneISBN: 978-6-1320-0140-5;
The term Ottoman flag refers to any of the flags used by the ruling Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty. Various flags were used within the Ottoman Empire during its existence, and the sultan also used different personal flags on different occasions of state. Due to the complex social and political organization of the Ottoman Empire, throughout most of its history there was no single proper national flag, until 1844. In 1844, as part of the Tanzimat reforms, the first official national flag of the Ottoman Empire was adopted. This flag, which had a five-pointed star and crescent, also formed the basis of the present-day flag of the Republic of Turkey. The crescent moon in the Ottoman Flag was thicker than its present form.
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