Lambert M. SurhoneISBN: 978-6-1329-2208-3;
The Youth Pledge (Indonesian: Sumpah Pemuda), was a declaration made on 28 October 1928 by young Indonesian nationalists at a conference in the then-Dutch East Indies. They proclaimed three ideals, one motherland, one nation and one language. The first Indonesian youth congress was held in Batavia, capital of the then-Dutch East Indies in 1926, but produced no formal decisions but did promote the idea of a united Indonesia. In October 1928, the second Indonesian youth congress was held at three different locations. In the first session, the hope was expressed that the congress would inspire the feeling of unity. The second session saw discussions about educational issues. In the third and final session, held at Jalan Kramat Raya No, 126, on October 28 participants heard the future Indonesian national anthem Indonesia Raya by Wage Rudolf Supratman. The congress closed with a reading of the youth pledge.
- OZON.ru 1453