Battle of Shipka Pass
Lambert M. SurhoneISBN: 978-6-1320-0888-6;
Four battles were fought between the Russian Empire, aided by Bulgarian volunteers known as Opalchentsi, and the Ottoman Empire for control over the crucial Shipka Pass during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).In July, 1877 four Russian corps had crossed the Danube River and were moving into Bulgaria. To precede the main Russian army Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko led a detachment to capture the vital Balkan Mountain passes. Gourko approached Shipka Pass, which was held by a Turkish garrison of 4,000-5,000 soldiers under Suleiman Pasha.
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