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ISBN: 0312221606Издательство: Palgrave MacMillan
The transformation provisions have brought about a replacement of the planning system by a capitalist market system. This change engendered many positive results, but at high social costs. Some results, such as a dramatic decline in output and a decline in the standard of living have been transitory, but unemployment, widening of income inequalities, weakening of social programs and expansion of poverty are permanent features of the new system. This book examines the active employment policy and itseffect, especially focusing on the social costs of transformation. It analyzes the reasons for the expansion of poverty and the chances of reducing it. Great attention is devoted to the reforms of pension and health care system. This book also discusses the performance of the economies of subject countries and gives a critical evaluation of privatization, primarily of the Czech voucher privatization.