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ISBN: 9280810642Издательство: United Nations University Press
In January 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) became the successor to GATT-the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The new organization was the result of years of negotiations on improving the rules-based trading system that oversees international trade. While most trade officials and others who have a direct interest in multilateral trade policy consider this multilateral system to be a major contributor to the enormous growth of world trade and income over the past half century, the WTO is viewed with suspicion and even animosity by many environmentalists. The criticisms focus on many aspects of the WTO. Some maintain that trade liberalization under WTO auspices has led to an environmentally harmful exploitation of natural and other resources, and others argue that the WTO hampers governments in pursuing environmentally friendly policies. The WTO is seen as increasingly extending its reach into areas-particularly through its dispute settlement process-that go beyond what...