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ISBN: 9264101772Издательство: Organization for Economic Cooperation & Devel
Voluntary approaches, including negotiated agreements and public programs in which firms can participate, are increasingly supplementing or replacing other environmental policy instruments such as regulations, taxes, and tradable permits. However, their environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency are often challenged. Do voluntary approaches deliver the expected environmental benefits? Do they help reaching environmental targets in a cost-effective way? This volume provides an assessment of the use of voluntary approaches, based on new case studies and available literature. It focuses on the environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, and administrative costs related to voluntary approaches?either used in isolation or as part of policy mixes. The book concludes that the environmental effectiveness of voluntary approaches is often questionable, while their economic efficiency is generally low. Various types of administrative and transaction costs vary...